4. Internet Resources (particularly those not described in other chapters)

Note: Now that the Internet is usually the preferred choice for information and music, the original organization of this guide into separate chapters for "Internet Resources" vs. hard resources such as printed books and CDs is anachronistic. Currently some major resources on the Internet, such as important digitized tunebooks, are listed in other chapters of this guide rather than this one, so it is important to check multiple chapters.

World Wide Web sites not devoted primarily to audio or image files

Note: The first two Web sites described below are good places to start learning about the world of Sacred Harp and related shape-note music. Both sites should be consulted, because each presents much worthy and nonoverlapping material.

Note: Web pages primarily devoted to regional singing schedules are listed in chapter 3.

Sacred Harp Singing by Professor Warren Steel at the University of Mississippi Department of Music. This resource is actively maintained by Prof. Steel, a foremost authority on early American psalmody and the Sacred Harp tradition. It includes the following important resources:

Of particular value are Mr. Steel's hyperlinks to tremendous music resources on the WWW, to be found by clicking on "-Warren Steel" to get his own homepage. Note that there is no "e" at the end of his frequently misspelled last name.

fasola.org: Sacred Harp Singing, developed initially by Keith Willard and revamped and managed by Chris Thorman, is currently under the auspices of the Sacred Harp Musical Heritage Association. This Web site provides access to many important resources and has the following main sections:

The Sacred Harp Online Index by Chris Thorman. This important online resource is an integrated set of indices of all lyrics, words, phrases, titles, page numbers, poets, composers, and meters in the The Sacred Harp, 1991 Edition. All of the indices are hyper-linked with the song lyrics and vice-versa." For example, one can look up a word in the concordance, find a list of songs using the word, and then click on the name of a listed song to reveal the complete lyrics and information of that song. There is also a list of the 200 most common words in the tunebook. This series of indices is reached through Fasola.org. This Web resource duplicates Mr. Thorman's printed Sacred Harp Concordance, which can be ordered from lulu.com for $9.06 plus shipping.

Cooper Book Tunes (online index) prepared by Martha Henderson and Tim Slattery, assisted by Robert Vaughn and webmaster Miriam Kilmer, is an integrated set of indices to all of the songs in the B.F. White Sacred Harp Revised Cooper Edition 2000 Revision. The tunes can be selectively sorted and displayed in the order of page number, tune name, composer, tune date, author, lyric date, meter, first line, or name of the same tune in the Denson Revision/1991 Edition. Optionally, all of these fields can be displayed in a spreadsheet. This project was the brainchild of Martha Henderson, who typed all of the data. Robert Vaughn supplied the song meters. Tim Slattery wrote the sorting program, and Miriam Kilmer provides Web space.

Comparison Tune Index Between the 1991 Denson Revision and the 2012 Cooper Revision by Gaylon Powell, assisted by Robert Vaughn, Karen Willard, and Berkley Moore. This highly useful index compares the tunes that are found in both the 1991 "Denson" Edition and the 2012 Cooper Edition. The main comparison is with respect to page numbers; in addition, any differences in the tune (tenor part) are noted. (The alto part is different between the books for most songs and therefore is not notated.) Tunes which appear in one but not the other book are also listed.

Minutes of Sacred Harp Singings. The minutes of singings from The Sacred Harp, 1991 Edition from 1995 through the year before the current one have been compiled electronically by Shelbie Sheppard, Pam Nunn, Carolyn Deacy, Chris Thorman, Keith Willard, David Ivey, and others. This database is available on the World Wide Web. One can browse the full directory or search by song number or full names of singers. Song numbers are hyperlinked to the title and lyrics. An added feature (to be used only if really needed) is downloadable zipped PDF files of the Sacred Harp Minutes Online Edition, which includes the Minutes, Directory of Singings, and Deaths sections of the annual printed minutes books.

Shape Note Bibliography, compiled by John Bealle. Extensively expanded in 1998, this is a impressive and useful guide to books, journal articles and other materials on shape note singing through 1998, compiled by an historian/folklorist/sociologist who has sung Sacred Harp music for decades. The listings are classified under the following headings: bibliographic sources, concepts, culture groups, geographic regions, influences, musical forms, tunebook compilers, and tunebooks.

Shape Note Recordings Index, compiled by Berkley Moore. This very useful resource lists essentially every audio recording of Sacred Harp and Sacred Harp-style music that is or has recently been in print and distributed to the public, including field recordings and performances by amateur and professional groups. Many recordings of English West Gallery music are also listed. The index consists of two sections: (1) an index of tunes, which lists all albums in which each tune is found, and (2) an index of albums which lists all tunes on each album.

Sacred Harp Memories compiled by R. Ryan. Texas Sacred Harp Singer Ron Ryan has created a rapidly growing online repository of historical materials generally not found elsewhere -- documents, audio, and video -- related to Sacred Harp singing (both Denson and Cooper books, but mostly Denson). The purpose is to preserve for posterity materials and memorabilia that were produced mainly by singers themselves and that might be eventually lost otherwise. The collection currently includes many audio files derived from cassette tapes of singings from the 1960s through the 1990s, various singer-produced videos and photos of singings, minutes of singings, a 1944 booklet published for the Sacred Harp Centennial Celebration, a 1953 appreciation of George Pullen Jackson, and more. As of this writing, content other than videos are temporarily offline and may return as early as February 2014. However, the many videos of Sacred Harp singings can be viewed on Vimeo.

Maps to Shape-Note Singings, produced by Karen Willard and Tim Slattery. The remarkable site on the Fasola.org Page contains two very high-quality maps (large and small format) with driving directions and information on singings for each of many singing locations, with emphasis on the hard-to-find locations in the rural South. Over 280 singings at over 210 locations were included as of last count, and additional ones are being added as work proceeds and as new singings are established. Karen Willard researched and created the maps and driving directions, while Tim Slattery did the CGI programming.

Shape-Note Pages of Ishmael the Fiddler, aka F. Ishmael J. M. Stefanov-Wagner. Ishmael the Fiddler has several informative pages on his Web site at MIT. One is entitled Shape-Note Historical Background, and explains the history of the shapes in shape-note singing. It has informative photos of pages from the Bay Psalme Book, John Tufts's Introduction to the Singing of Psalm-Tunes, and Andrew Law's Musical Primer.

Chronological Index of The Sacred Harp (1991 Edition) compiled by Duncan Vinson. This page, now on the Fasola.org Web site, lists the tunes (page numbers only) in the order of the date of the composition of the music, as published in the tunebook. Mr. Vinson was an ethnomusicology student at Brown University.

"Sacred Harp Singing School Workbook" and audio files by David I. Lee and Karen E. Willard, July 2005 edition. David Lee of Hoboken, GA and Karen Willard of Seattle, WA collaborated to produce an outstanding 45-page booklet with 27 audio files, for teaching the rudiments of music written in the fa-sol-la-mi four-shape notation and for singing Sacred Harp music. It is ideal for potential singers who have not attended an actual singing school or who are having trouble learning Sacred Harp singing. Karen Willard writes: "At the above website you'll see a PDF workbook for beginners that you can download and print out. Then depending upon whether you want MP3 files or the much larger .wav audio files, you can download the many many examples that illustrate the workbook. The scales are repeated numerous times, both major scale and minor scale, in both a male voice and a female voice." This resource has helped many people without a strong musical background learn to sing.

Christian Harmony Web page now for both editions, maintained by Mary Baumeister and others. Information, schedules, and minutes of singings from both the 1873 Walker edition of Christian Harmony in western North Carolina and the Deason-Parris Christian Harmony in Alabama and Mississippi (information on Al-MS singings supplied by Tim Cook). There is also sections presenting recipes, ordering information for tunebooks and CDs, and verses that are not in the tunebooks.

The Online Southern Harmony, by Harry Plantinga. This Web site, which is the brainchild of Prof. Plantinga of Wheaton College and appears to be under construction, is an index of William Walker's Southern Harmony and Musical Companion (1854 edition). Each song is accompanied by an image of the original score, complete song text, tune attributions, and printable GIF images. Some songs also have MIDI sound files contributed by Peter B. Irvine. There are indices and a search engine as well. This resource is in the Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Wheaton College.

Northern Harmony Online Index. This index contains information about songs in the Northern Harmony, Fourth Edition (see chapter 1). The format is exactly the same as that of the Sacred Harp Online Index by Chris Thorman but is being maintained by Robert Stoddard.

Rising Dove Bookstore of Miriam Kilmer. This Web page lists conveniently most or all shape note music-related books and recordings sold by or through the online stores Amazon.com, Borders.com, Alibris.com, and American Book Exchange. It contains links to the informative Amazon pages for each item.

Practical Guides to Sacred Harp Singing by Virginia W. Ely and others. Ginnie Ely is a noted Boston-area shape-note singer who has had many years of experience in singing and leading Sacred Harp music in the North and South, in observing and participating in successful traditional practices at Southern singings, and in organizing the New England Sacred Harp Convention. These essays are found in Prof. Warren Steel's Web site at the URLs indicated below:

Miss Grace Notes' Advice on All Things Sacred Harp.. In the 1990s, the Chicago Sacred Harp Newsletter (no longer published) featured a column (written in the style of Miss Manners' column and books) providing advice to novice Northern Sacred Harpers on the proper etiquette of Sacred Harp singings. Although the identity of Miss Grace Notes was not disclosed, the advice reflects extensive knowledge of Southern Sacred Harp practices. Now Karen Willard has provided many of the columns on the Pacific Northwest Sacred Harp Web site "so that an entirely new crop of Sacred Harp singers may benefit from her wisdom and graciously imparted knowledge of Sacred Harp ways."

"The Sacred Harp as Experimental Composition," essay by Prof. Neely Bruce. Prof. Bruce presented this paper at the first All-Ireland Sacred Harp Singing Convention at University College Cork in March 2011. While giving a background to Sacred Harp music to those unfamiliar with it, the paper goes further to present a fresh and interesting perspective on the music, emphasizing the novel aspects of its harmonic idiosyncrasies and spatial quality.

The African American Shape Note Singing Project Facebook page by Chiquita and Benny Walls. Ms. Walls teaches American history at Rust College in Holly Spring, MS. She is an authority on Mississippi's African American shape-note tradition, as described in an article she wrote in 1999. She and her late husband Benny Walls began the African American Shape Note Singing Project Facebook page to foster the African-American shapenote singing tradition which includes Sacred Harp, Christian Harmony,and seven-shape Gospel-style music.

Sacred Harp tune listings organized by Pat Keating. Prof. Keating, a Sacred Harp singer, has created "for fun" some spreadsheets of tunes which should be useful to others. Current information includes the following:

Analyses of Sacred Harp tunes and texts by Will Fitzgerald. Dr. Fitzgerald, a Sacred Harp singer, has prepared a growing number of analyses and posted them on his Web site. These include the following:

Entrances for Fuging Tunes in The Sacred Harp, 1991 Edition tabulated by Annie Grieshop. Ms. Grieshop, a singer and pianist, lists fuging tunes (as defined by Karl Kroeger) and the order of entrances of the parts for each tune.

Chronological Biography of B. F. White by Donald Stephen Clarke. B.F. White, originally from South Carolina, was the principal compiler of The Sacred Harp (first edition 1844). This interesting biographical resource was placed on the Web by the author's cousin Prof. Charles Wells.

"Hoboken Style: Meaning and Change in Okefenokee Sacred Harp Singing," by Laurie Kay Sommers. This outstanding article in the peer-reviewed online journal Southern Spaces (of the Emory University Libraries) contains a scholarly essay, photos, 11 audio recordings, and 7 video recordings, all dealing with the Sacred Harp singing of the Okefenokee region of southeast George and northeast Florida, centering around the extended Lee family. The distinctive variant characteristics of Sacred Harp singing are presented and contrasted with Primitive Baptist lined-out hymn singing. The audio recordings come from various traditional sings (singings) in the area. The video recordings generally feature David I. Lee conducting a singing school and providing demonstrations at several sings. The essay has an excellent and probably unique presentation of the relation between Primitive Baptist subsects in the Okefenokee area and Sacred Harp singing, and on the recent hybridization of the singing style after the Lee family discovered and interacted extensively with the broader Sacred Harp community. There are extensive footnotes and a bibliography. Ms. Sommers is an independent scholar of folklore. (Note: This resource guide generally does not list journal articles about Sacred Harp singing, but this one is a worthy exception.)

Florida Memory Project of the State Library and Archives of Florida. Numerous online archived documents and audio recordings can be found by starting at the Sacred Harp page. For example, the Photos and History page contains links to many photographs and their captions.

The Hymn Tune Index: A Census of English-Language Hymn Tunes in Printed Sources from 1535 to 1820 by Nicholas Temperley, assisted by Charles G. Manns, and Joseph Herl. The description by the publisher of the print version of The Hymn Tune Index states: "This unique reference is the first systematic guide to the history of the English-language hymn tune, as represented in printed sources from the earliest (Coverdale's Goostly Psalmes) to 1820. Using a simple numerical code to represent the first two lines of each melody, the book allows the reader to look up any of nearly 20,000 British and American hymn tunes without advance knowledge of the composer, name, or text. The online search engine can be used to query the Hymn Tune Index database for specific information, including tune name, incipit (beginning of melody), composer, and attribution, as well as hymn texts (first two lines). For example, one can find all listed tune(s) having a given incipit, all listed tunes by a given composer, or all listed tunes associated with a given text. Information on musical sources in which a given tune appeared can subsequently be obtained. " (The printed version is out of print.) The Web site's main entry URLs is http://hymntune.library.uiuc.edu/.

The Dictionary of North American Hymnology at Hymnary.org. The Dictionary of North American Hymnology is a comprehensive online master bibliography and index of hymn collections published in the United States and Canada from 1640 to 1978. Hymns from 4,875 collections are indexed by collection code, year the collection was published, first line, author/translator/adaptor,refrain, and title. Hymnals and collections of hymns are indexed by collection code, title, compiler/editor, and place-publisher-year of publication. [Note that the strict hymnological definition of "hymn" is the text or the words that are sung, not the tune.] The The Sacred Harp is one of the hymnals indexed. Hymnary.org is a broad project of the Christian Classics Ethereal Library and the Calvin Institute of Christian Worship, to which the DNAH has been recently added. Hymnary.org also has author biographies from John Julian's Dictionary of Hymnology. This comprehensive database should be highly useful to those seriously interested in hymns.

Christian Classics Ethereal Library at Calvin College. This is an extensive resource of digitized books, audio files, and other electronic resources. The revised website makes browsing more difficult than before and best accessed by its search engine. For example, searching under "hymns" retrieves many old hymnals, but a more efficient search requires searching under more specific titles, authors, or composers.


Web sites featuring audio files of shape-note music

Voices Across America, is a project of June Melton, who travels around the U.S. in search of musicians performing Christian music such as traditional hymns, gospel, spirituals, bluegrass, and Sacred Harp. There are now many interesting shape-note singing field recordings in the Sacred Harp category. For example, there are audio files from recent Chattahoochee (Georgia) and Minnesota Sacred Harp Conventions, a monthly singing at the Antioch Baptist Church in Ider, Alabama, a Harmonia Sacra singing in Indiana, several New Harp of Columbia singings in Tennessee, and songs from a shape-note singing school in Mississippi during which well-known songs were sung in the Choctaw (Indian) language. In addition, there are audio files of songs performed by several performing ensembles.

Audio recordings of Robert Stoddard on BostonSing.com. Mr. Stoddard of Boston/Charlestown, MA has been digitally recording singings he has attended, most but not all Sacred Harp, since 2009 throughout the U.S. He has placed MP3 files of many recorded songs on his BostonSing.org website. His index lists all songs in the 1991 Sacred Harp with links to recordings on his site and on a few external sites. He has nearly achieved his goal of having recordings of every song in the book.

[Ingall's] Christian Harmony Recordings produced by Thomas Malone. Tom Malone, editor of The Christian Harmony and Songster's Companion by Jeremiah Ingalls, Bicentennial 2005 Edition has produced over four CD field recordings of singing of the songs from the bicentennial edition (see Chapter 5). He has also produced in 2007 a CD of less popular songs from this book in which he sings all four parts (See Chapter 6). Will Fitzgerald has placed streaming audio files of most or all of the tracks of these five recordings on his Web site at http://www.entish.org/ch/.

Sacred Harp recordings of John Work in 1938 . The Library of Congress's American Memory Project has a section featuring audio files of six songs sung from the Cooper Sacred Harp in 1938 probably in Dothan, Alabama and recorded by John Work. (Thanks to Will Fitzgerald for discovering these.)

Folksong recordings of John Quincy Wolf, Jr. Folklorist John Quincy Wolf, Jr. collected and recorded folksongs of the South and recorded over 60 Sacred Harp singings in northern Mississippi and Alabama in the 1960s. Some of his collections are maintained by Lyon College in Arkansas. Many field recordings were donated in 2012 by his daughter to the University of Mississippi library.

"Amazing Grace" Web site of the Library of Congress. The Library of Congress launched in 2007 an extensive Web site devoted to the history of the most famous hymn sung to a tune with shape-note origins, "Amazing Grace." The site features the Chasanoff/Elozua Amazing Grace Collection of published recordings of the hymn by various musicians. It is a joint venture of several divisions of the Library as well as the American Folklife Center. Of interest to shape-note singers are several early and unpublished recordings. These include the earliest known (1922) recording of of "New Britain" by the Original Sacred Harp Choir, a 1929 recording by the Allison Sacred Harp Singers using the tune "Jewett," a previously unavailable 1942 recording of "New Britain" by Alan Lomax and George Pullen Jackson at the Alabama Sacred Harp Convention, and a 1986 recording of "New Britain" by the Boston Camerata (from a live concert). Of further interest is a 1942 interview by Alan Lomax of the dynamic Sacred Harp great Paine Denson, in which he praises the authenticity of the music in The Sacred Harp and derides new harmonizations of "Amazing Grace/New Britain" and "The Promised Land." The Web site also has a useful timeline and several examples of early printed versions of "Amazing Grace" (see image file section below).

[NEW] Voice-part audio files on the Sacred Harp Bremen website. This website mostly in the German language has a remarkable teaching resource: Under the heading Lieder (songs), there are links to computer-generated audio files for each voice part of each song in The Sacred Harp 1991 Edition. One can listen separately to each computer-generated voice part -- treble (labeled Sopran), treble an octave lower, alto, tenor, bass) and all four (or three) parts together -- with words of the first verse. The parts are pleasantly "sung" by a computer with what sounds like a British accent. Each voice part is heard not in isolation but with the other parts audible softly in the background. An image of the score of the featured song isvisible below the buttons for the audio files. For some songs, there are also links to YouTube videos of the featured song sung by real people at various singings in Europe and the UK.

"Sacred Harp.mus": Audio files of songs in The Sacred Harp and other shape-note tunebooks prepared by Terre Schill. As described by Ms. Schill, "This page offers audio .mus files of songs in the 1991 Revision and Cooper book of The Sacred Harp [and now Southern Harmony, Christian Harmony (Alabama and North Carolina editions), New Harp of Columbia, and Harmonia Sacra]. These files are not intended to be an entirely realistic representation of Sacred Harp songs as sung, but rather to be useful to singers in learning new songs, or new parts to already-familiar songs. To play these files you must have the Myriad Plug-In, freeware, 1553 kb. This will enable you to play songs at this Web site in either the default piano or the synthetic "virtual singer" voice or to download them to be played on one's own Melody/Harmony Assistant program to enable one to play only one or two parts in isolation for easier learning."

Will Fitzgerald has created a Web page linking the lyrics of songs in the 1991 Edition compiled by Chris Thorman on the fasola.org site with the music files on Sacred Harp.mus.

Music from The American Vocalist Web site, compiled by John Kay. The American Vocalist was published in Boston in 1848-49 by D.H. Mansfield. It contains many early 19th century singing school tunes, published in standard round notation, and is long out of print. John Kay has an ongoing project to post online MIDI files and scanned pages for all songs in the book. He is also adding MIDI files and scans from other out of print tunebooks as well. Note: Scans of the entire tunebook are now available on Google Books.

"The Good Old Way": MIDI files of shape-note hymns/songs prepared by Michael Moore. Mr. Moore, of Cedar Falls, Iowa, has generated synthesizer/instrumental performances of many shape note tunes from The Sacred Harp (1991 and Cooper Editions), The Southern Harmony, Christian Harmony (1873), The Harmonia Sacra, The Easy Instructor (1818), Ingall's The Christian Harmony (1805), Wyeth's Repository Part 2 (1820), tunes by Stephen Jenks, Methodist Harmonist (1822), and more. He has placed these MIDI files online on his home page. He writes, "Please keep in mind that midis in no way come close to the beauty apparent in these tunes when a whole room full of people sing them with love and gusto." Having said that, listening to these MIDIs can be moving and enlightening, because the songs sound refreshingly different when "performed" with instrumental tones rather than voices and words in a relatively peaceful and quiet style. Furthermore, these MIDIs can introduce singers to unfamiliar but beautiful shape-note tunes.

"The Other Old Way" is another growing collection of MIDI files prepared by Michael Moore. It features tunes from mainstream books of compilers and composers like Lowell Mason, Thomas Hastings, William Batchelder Bradbury, Luther Orlando Emerson, and George Root. Mr. Moore writes: "Many of these writers' tunes really were written for beginners and sound somewhat ordinary, but quite a few have very interesting ideas and sounds."

Apple's iTunes Music Store. Many Sacred Harp songs found on CDs described elsewhere in this guide are currently available for download as MP3 files for $0.99 per song, and several entire albums are available for $9.99. Many of the recent commercial recordings listed in this guide are available on iTunes. To see what is available, one needs to download the free iTunes software (for PC or Mac) from http://www.apple.com/itunesand then search the database with this software.


Web sites featuring image files of shape-note music scores, both old and new

The Hesperian Harp: a Collection of Psalm and Hymn Tunes, Odes and Anthems by William Hauser, 1848, images compiled by Berkley Moore. The Hesperian Harp is one of the most important 19th century tunebooks. As Berkley Moore writes, it "is the largest and arguably the best of the shape-note tune books of the Nineteenth Century." The songs are written in the four-shape fasola notation, are stylistically similar to those found in The Sacred Harp, and include many composed by Hauser himself. Berkley Moore has scanned all 552 pages of this tunebook including the Preface and Indices.

A Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony by Ananias Davisson, Third Edition 1825, images compiled by John and Hans Bayer and Berkley Moore. The 150-page Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony is an historically important tunebook, because unlike The Kentucky Harmony, which is the first truly Southern shapenote tunebook, it included "new" and beautiful harmonized tunes of folk origin, including revival tunes. The Supplement was never reprinted in facsimile form in recent times, so the online scans of Bayer and Moore are a useful resource. These scans are available as single-page PDFs on Terre Schill's SacredHarp.mus website and also as a single large PDF (97 MB) generated by Robert Stoddard and found on his BostonSing.org website.

A Supplement to the Kentucky Harmony, retypeset by Robert Stoddard. Mr. Stoddard has completely reset the entire Supplement with modern legible scores and texts (generated by Lilypond) with correction of obvious errors in the original. His high quality working draft of all of the book is found as a PDF (3.3 MB) on his website under the subtitle SupplKtHarmony.

Web sites of the Library of Congress's American Memory Project containing images of all pages of important early American shape-note tunebooks:

Southern and Western Pocket Harmonist, Intended as An Appendix to the Southern Harmony, compiled by William Walker (1845) digitized images. This small (pocket-sized) book has around 150 tunes in three-part harmony and four-shape notation. The PDF file of an 1860 printing is on the archives of the Princeton Theological Seminary (8.25 MB) and also on Robert Stoddard's Bostonsing website (44 MB and larger images there, scanned by John and Hans Bayer).

Scans of early American tunebooks on the IMSLP/Petrucci Music Library. The International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP) has a huge yet growing wiki-like public-domain virtual music library. It has complete scans of the original editions of several New England tunebooks (written in round notes). As reported by David Wright, the easiest way to browse is by composer name, by which one can find the following tunebooks:

The American Vocalist (Revised Edition, 1849) compiled by D. H. Mansfield. Scans of the complete tunebook (with scores in round rather than shaped notes) are freely available on Google Books.

The Cooperative Digital Resources Initiative of the American Theological Library Association has scanned and made available online seven shaped-note tunebooks and hymnals from the Bowld Music Library of the Southwestern Baptist Theological Seminary. The set of 2981 images can be accessed by going to the Browse the Collections page and checking "Shape-note tune books." Most of the tunes appear to be in the "better music" category. The tunebooks scanned (with hyperlinks to the first page of each) are listed below. (However, with some browsers under some circumstances the ATLA server fails to process the URL and directs you to their general search page.) (Thanks to Barbara Swetman for providing these links):

Early American tunebooks newly retypeset by Robert Stoddard. Mr. Stoddard of Boston/Charlestown, MA has been using the Lilypond program to produce more legible and singable scores of songs from several tunebooks. He writes: "These are "pretty good drafts" -- certainly not final, but I believe they are accurate and readable."

The Trumpet, online periodical of new songs, edited by Will Fitzgerald, Thomas Malone, R.L. Vaughn, and Rachel Wells Hall, with musical typesetting by James Nelson Gingerich. Modeled after a newspaper called "The Organ" published by B.F. White in the mid 19th century, The Trumpet was launched in 2011 for the online publication of new songs/tunes in the Sacred Harp style, along with feedback about the tunes from singers, audio files of some of the songs, and articles and historical material about Sacred Harp. The editors write: "These songs will be enjoyed best at practice singings, house/kitchen/porch singings, or night singings where people gather to enjoy hearing new music." Three issues per year have been published so far, with each issue containing up to 12-14 new tunes formatted as PDFs that can be printed and sung. The first three years have been a rousing success, with new tunes from many composers, some previously well known and others (including some from the UK and Poland) introducing their talents for the first time. The issues are available as downloadable PDFs online, or can be sent directly in the mail. At the year's end, a "Digest Edition" containing all the songs of the year and a CD will be available at a nominal cost.

New Compositions in the Style of the Sacred Harp, compiled by Jesse Pearlman Karlsberg. The front page states: "This web site features new tunes, written in the style of the Sacred Harp, by several composers from the Northeastern and Northwestern United States. Through this web site, we hope to share our music with other interested singers, and to explore and contribute to the understanding of Sacred Harp composition." The site includes compositions by several very active and talented composers and singers.

The Minnesota Harmony Project. This site is a place where shape note songwriters from Minnesota (and beyond) can put copies of their scores for evaluation and singing by the shapenote singing community. The site also has retypeset scores of hard-to-find early American music, including some by William Billings.

The Northeast Ohio Sacred Harp Singing Page, maintained by Prof. Charles Wells. Some shape-note music is found under a subheading of this page.

The North Carolina Shape Note Singing Web Page has tune scores in the section entitled Local Music Collection.


Web sites featuring past radio programs about shape-note music

NPR program "Sacred Harp Singers," 1979. Cleve Callison, then of WLRH Public Radio, Huntsville, AL, produced an award-winning documentary of close to one hour in length on Sacred Harp singing which was aired on National Public Radio's "Options" series in October, 1979. Twenty-five years later he has recently placed on the Web MP3 files of all segments of this program for listening over the Internet. The program includes the singing of 22 songs and interviews of singers at the 1978 United Sacred Harp Convention in Arab, AL, and the 1979 Holly Springs Singing in Bremen, GA. Interviewed are: Hugh McGraw of the Sacred Harp Publishing Co., author Buell Cobb, Mack Wootten, Lisa Wootten, Carl Hughes and others. The remarks of Mack Wootten about the fellowship and joy of singing are particularly memorable. Currently each of 46 segments must be downloaded separately.

South Georgia Folklife Collection radio archives and photo exhibit. Brief programs on Sacred Harp singing in the area of Hoboken, Georgia were produced by Laurie Kay Sommers and aired on Georgia Public Radio in 1998 and 2000. Three of these (including one on hymn lining) were part of the 13-part Wiregrass Ways series produced by WWET in Valdosta and supported by the Georgia Council for the Arts. Five more short programs were produced for the Pulse of the Planet series and feature interviews with members of the Lee family and Hoboken-style Sacred Harp singing. The Web site also has an exhibit of photographs of Sacred Harp singing and explanatory legends. The programs in the Radio Archives related to Sacred Harp and hymn lining are as follows, where the first three are from the Wiregrass Ways and the latter five (meant to form a single unit) are from Pulse of the Planet:

Alabama State Council on the Arts Radio Series. The Web site features audio files of many "Alabama Arts" radio programs, each 28.5 minutes long. The files are in MP3 format, with some also in the smaller WMA format for faster downloads. Of interest to Sacred Harp singers are the following programs:

Western Massachusetts Sacred Harp singing on New York city radio . An archived audio file of a radio program (called Airborne Event with Dan Bodah) on April 17, 2002 on WFMU-FM (New York City area) has three hours of spirited singing from the 2002 Western Massachusetts Sacred Harp Convention, along with six interviews with singers including Tim Eriksen, Peter Irvine, Cath Oss, and Richard DeLong.

Electronic Mail Lists/Groups

Fasola.org hosts two distinct and very active mailing lists (now Google groups) for shape-note music singers and enthusiasts as well as scholars and performing artists. Both are moderated lists, and each serves a different purpose. Both lists are still veryactive in spite of the rise of numerous (mostly regional) Facebook groups. Extensive information on both lists may be found at the Fasola Mailing Lists web page.

There are several ways to subscribe to these lists -- by e-mail, the Google Groups Web interface, or Fasola.org, all explained in detail on the Fasola List web page. The simplest way is to just send an email message to one of these addresses: fasola-singings-subscribe@googlegroups.com or fasola-discussions-subscribe@googlegroups.com. You'll receive a confirmation request e-mail (to prove your identity)--you should reply to the confirmation request from the same e-mail address you used to subscribe. Then wait for a second confirmation that you have been added.

Fasola Questions Google Group. This is an open forum for the general public to ask questions about Sacred Harp music, hymns, history, traditions, or any other questions not answered on the Sacred Harp Singing web site at http://fasola.org/. No membership is required to post a question. Sacred Harp singers expert in various aspects of the subject will receive the posted questions and will hopefully reply.

Fasola Songwriters Google Group. A group discussing shape note composition in the four-shape style of the Sacred Harp tradition. Examples of topics include discussion of mechanical aspects of specific songs, the sources of inspiration for song writing, Sacred Harp style "rules", reviews of tunes, etc. The group was started in September 2010 by Robert Vaughn of Mount Enterprise, TX. It quickly became a lively group, with many postings by active composers of Sacred Harp style music.

Region-specific e-mail lists. Several e-mail listings have been set up for announcements and discussion regarding singing in a particular region. Only subscribers can post to these lists or, for some lists, access archives.

Note: Some Sacred Harp communities have set up (or may soon set up) Facebook pages to supplement or potentially replace their e-mail lists. This guide lists many of these in chapter 3.

Blogs

Blogs (Web logs): There is at least one blog devoted entirely to Sacred Harp singing, the UC Berkeley Sacred Harp Blog which has multiple authors.

An increasing number of Sacred Harp singers have started personal blogs dealing with multiple subjects including but not limited to Sacred Harp. One place to search for them is Google Blog Search. These include the Will.Whim blog by Will Fitzgerald, Music Education, Praxis, and World Traditions by Thomas B. Malone, Sacred Harp Alto blog by Sharona Nelson, Ministry and Music - Seeking the Old Paths blog by R. L. Vaughn, Showers of Blessings blog by Paul L., and Cleve Callison's blog.


Steven L. Sabol (sabol@his.com)
HTML version by Warren Steel (mudws@olemiss.edu)